Description. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter infections: an emerging challenge to clinicians. MLST has been shown to be highly concordant with PFGE and is reproducible between laboratories. were the eighth most common organism isolated from patients hospitalized with pneumonia between 2009 and 2012.18 Genospecies of Acinetobacter may show geographic variations.19,20 In one US study conducted between 1995 and 2003, approximately one third of Acinetobacter bloodstream infections (BSIs) were caused by A. nosocomialis or A. pitti, and 63% were caused by A. baumannii.21 In a study of Acinetobacter spp. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Unfortunately, resistance to “last-line” agents, such as the cationic antimicrobial peptides colistin (polymyxin E) and its close relative polymyxin B, also occurs. PCR has been widely applied for detection of specific genes associated with antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter, and as an adjunct technique in other strain typing methodologies. Acinetobacter spp. E. Bergogne-Bérézin, in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 2014. calcoaceticus is more common in pathological conditions, whereas Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter junii, and Aci. Hilmar Wisplinghoff, in Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition), 2017. DNA sequencing, while definitive, may only be applied to discrete segments of the Acinetobacter genome. Herellea agar is particularly recommended for differentiating Acinetobacter species from Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urethral or vaginal specimens. Acinetobacter is a widespread microbe, present throughout the environment. NIH Of the top 10 organisms causing hospital-acquired BSIs in US hospitals from 1995 to 2002, Acinetobacter spp. They utilize a wide variety of substrates as sole carbon source in nature, plants, food, and foodstuffs (source for human carriage). An increasing number of strains of Acinetobacter species are resistant to all antibiotics, and these strains are often responsible for outbreaks in large hospitals. To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Symptoms of an Acinetobacter infection may show up anywhere between 4 and 40 days after a person comes into contact with the bacteria, but they usually appear within roughly 12 days. Species identification with manual or semi-automated identification kits such as the API, Vitek 2, and MicroScan systems is, however, problematic, partly because the substrates used are not designed to identify Acinetobacter. 2008 Dec;3(6):649-60. doi: 10.2217/17460913.3.6.649. Medicines used to treat Acinetobacter baumannii may cause nausea, vomiting, or skin rashes. Among the resistance genes found in Acinetobacter species are a large collection of genes for β-lactamase, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, and many efflux pumps. Acinetobacter spp. Armstrong and Cohen (1999). Leeds Acinetobacter Medium is a novel antibiotic-containing selective medium that combines its selectivity with differential characteristics and has been used for the improved isolation of Acinetobacter species from both clinical and environmental sources (Jawad et al., 1994). Consequently, acinetobacters degrade a variety of organic pollutants. Indeed, biochemical test kits are generally unable to distinguish between the ABC-complex species and these are all generally identified as A. baumannii. Alan Ebringer, ... Clyde Wilson, in Infection and Autoimmunity (Second Edition), 2015. Acinetobacter forms non-pigmented colonies, which are also mucoid when formed by encapsulated strains. Most healthy people have a low risk of Acinetobacter infections. One of the biggest issues with treating Acinetobacter baumannii is that the bacterium is naturally resistant to a number of … Acinetobacters rarely require growth factors, and they can utilize a variety of organic compounds, although not all species can utilize glucose. Of these, A. baumannii is most clinically significant in human disease. Practicing proper hygiene and thoroughly cleaning medical equipment and healthcare environments can help prevent Acinetobacter infections. Normally non-pathogenic, Acinetobacter can cause serious infections in critically ill patients. are nonfermenting, nonmotile, oxidase-negative, aerobic gram-negative coccobacilli (Figure 181-8) and may be mistaken for gram-negative (or even gram-positive) cocci. to interrupt the transmission of Acinetobacter (64, 104, 109). Acinetobacters normally form smooth, pale yellow to grayish-white colonies on TSA. A person can also carry the bacteria in and on their body without it causing any infections. Steven L. Percival, David W. Williams, in Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases (Second Edition), 2014. If the bacteria enter the body, this can cause infections. MDR A. baumannii is a rapidly emerging pathogen, especially in the intensive care setting, causing infections including bacteremia, pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), meningitis, urinary tract infection, central venous catheter-related infection, and wound infection. 2020 Jun 3;11:1048. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01048. Areas covered include bloodstream infections, pneumonia or VAP, meningitis, urinary tract infection, skin and soft-tissue or wound infections due to Acinetobacter. They are found in virtually 100% of soil and fresh-water samples (less than 1–7.9×104 cfu 100 ml−1). The G+C contents of Acinetobacter DNAs are 39–47 mol%. Digestive tract colonization has been documented in infants and adults in a prospective study (77% of 73 patients). MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. PCR has been widely applied for detection of specific genes associated with antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter, and as an adjunct technique in other strain typing methodologies. Acinetobacter Infection in District of Columbia, Acinetobacter Infection in North Carolina, Acinetobacter Infection in South Carolina. Acinetobacter infections can be staggering, and some insti-tutions have even been forced to close entire units in order. Classification of species within this genus has historically presented difficulty owing to the genetic diversity of this organism. Rectal colonization of Acinetobacter comprises the risk of ‘translocation’ phenomenon (transfer from gut to form infected sites in lungs or other organs). Antibiotic medicines: Antibiotic (germ-killing) medicine will be used to treat your infection. Pigmentation is rare, although a brown diffusible pigment has been described for some environmental strains. Comparison of Molecular Methods for Strain Typing as Applied to Acinetobacter. They treat bacterial infections, not viruses. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Acinetobacter. In the case of potable water samples, Eosin-Methylene Blue Agar can differentiate Acinetobacter from other heterotrophic organisms (AWWA, 1999). The optimum growth temperature for clinical isolates is generally 37 °C. This has allowed issues in assay standardization to be addressed. Its discriminatory power is high, and digitalization of data lends itself to computerized analysis. Many Acinetobacter isolates resemble saprophytic pseudomonads and other Gram-negative nonfermentative organisms in their ability to utilize a wide range of organic compounds as sole sources of carbon and energy. When resistant to multiple antibiotics, they’re multidrug-resistant. Presumptive identification of Acinetobacter is therefore based on colony appearance and biochemical characteristics. A selective medium for the growth of Acinetobacter is Herellea agar (Mandel et al., 1964). Doing this will allow them to determine which antibiotics may be suitable for fighting it. This is no doubt partially due to the ability of Acinetobacter to incorporate genes that encode a variety of resistance mechanisms through horizontal transfer of plasmids and integrons. Normally non-pathogenic, Acinetobacter can cause serious infections in critically ill patients. Acinetobacter spp. In one study of skin and mucous membranes, up to 43% of nonhospitalized patients were colonized with Acinetobacter spp.

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