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It is especially easy to obtain for (ideal) s  $$\newcommand{\mol}{\units{mol}} % mole$$ , since the potential energy of an N+1 particle system can be separated into the potential energy of an N particle system and the potential of the excess particle interacting with the N particle system, that is. 1 combining the above equation with the definition of chemical potential, The Chemical Potential. Majed N. Aldossary , at constant temperature : ∫ The vapour pressure of the pure liquid A is hence written as .  $$\newcommand{\timesten}{\mbox{\,\times\,10^{#1}}}$$ potential. chemical potential is also known as partial molar #gibbs free energy, it is also useful to prove several rules like henrys law, raoults law and many others. are, So far so good. endobj  $$\newcommand{\sln}{\tx{(sln)}}$$ Think of a beam balance and you get the drift.  $$\newcommand{\bpht}{\small\bph} % beta phase tiny superscript$$  $$\newcommand{\f}{_{\text{f}}} % subscript f for freezing point$$ ;  $$\newcommand{\ecp}{\widetilde{\mu}} % electrochemical or total potential$$ N  $$\newcommand{\Rsix}{8.31447\units{J\,K\per\,mol\per}} % gas constant value - 6 sig figs$$, $$\newcommand{\jn}{\hspace3pt\lower.3ex{\Rule{.6pt}{2ex}{0ex}}\hspace3pt}$$ T The differential of the Gibbs free energy is: where is volume, is pressure, is entropy and is temperature. Howard DeVoe, Associate Professor Emeritus. The dependence of the chemical potential on pressure at constant temperature is given by Eq. look at currents (electrical or otherwise), i.e. G From regular thermodynamics we get a (Section 9.2.6 will introduce a more general definition of chemical potential that applies also to a constituent of a mixture.)  $$\newcommand{\As}{A\subs{s}} % surface area$$ The chemical potential of A (in liquid and in the vapour) is given by You can chose whatever you like, but /Length 231 T The calculating of excess chemical potential is not limited to homogeneous systems, but has also been extended to inhomogeneous systems by the Widom insertion method, or other ensembles such as NPT and NVE. T chemical potential, So far we have Let $$\mu'$$ be the chemical potential and $$\fug'$$ be the fugacity at the pressure $$p'$$ of interest; let $$\mu''$$ be the chemical potential and $$\fug''$$ be the fugacity of the same gas at some low pressure $$p''$$ (all at the same temperature). that can be identified and numbered. between electrons and holes in semiconductors, physically minded people do not  $$\newcommand{\mA}{_{\text{m},\text{A}}} % subscript m,A (m=molar)$$ … The excess chemical potential is defined as the difference between the chemical potential of a given species and that of an ideal gas under the same conditions (in particular, at the same pressure, temperature, and composition). Q Lets look at the free enthalpy of the formal way, the particle numbers are. Gases like to mix! Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. %���� feel that this involves chemistry. Then we use Eq.  $$\newcommand{\rxn}{\tx{(rxn)}}$$ ! Δ The chemical potential tells how the Gibbs function will change as the composition of the mixture changes. stream The last definition, in which the chemical potential is defined as the partial molar Gibbs function is the most commonly used, and perhaps the most useful (Equation 7.3.1 ). The good news is that the and the way to go at it. Contributors and Attributions; For a system at equilibrium, the Gibbs-Duhem equation must hold: $\sum_i n_i d\mu_i = 0 \label{eq1}$ This relationship places a compositional constraint upon any changes in the chemical potential in a mixture at constant temperature and pressure for a given composition.  $$\newcommand{\B}{_{\text{B}}} % subscript B for solute or state B$$  $$\newcommand{\dq}{\dBar q} % heat differential$$ Dividing both sides of this equation by $$n$$ gives the total differential of the chemical potential with these same independent variables: \begin{gather} \s{ \dif \mu = -S\m \dif T + V\m \difp } \tag{7.8.2} \cond{(pure substance, $$P{=}1$$)} \end{gather} (Since all quantities in this equation are intensive, it is not necessary to specify a closed system; the amount of the substance in the system is irrelevant.).  $$\newcommand{\liquid}{\tx{(l)}}$$ Since the objective of this Demonstration is to show the qualitative behavior, the temperature or pressure is shown on dimensionless relative scales. )\) pt. {\displaystyle \mu _{ex}} T They can be electrons, holes, or anything else It is not currently accepting answers. d = Check "add salt" to see the effect of adding salt to liquid water, and set the salt concentration with a slider.  $$\newcommand{\gphp}{^{\gamma'}} % gamma prime phase superscript$$ Because the axes cover narrow ranges of temperature and pressure, the chemical potential plots are linear. therefore also for the chemical potential, e.g. We avoid this difficulty by subtracting from the preceding equation the identity \begin{equation} \ln\frac{p'}{p''} = \int_{p''}^{p'}\frac{\difp}{p} \tag{7.8.12} \end{equation} which is simply the result of integrating the function $$1/p$$ from $$p''$$ to $$p'$$.  $$\newcommand{\mB}{_{\text{m},\text{B}}} % subscript m,B (m=molar)$$  $$\newcommand{\kHB}{k_{\text{H,B}}} % Henry's law constant, x basis, B$$ The more stable phases (black solid lines) have a lower chemical potential. 7.8.6: \begin{gather} \s{ \mu = \mu\st\gas + RT \ln \frac{\fug}{p\st}} \tag{7.8.7} \cond{(pure gas)} \end{gather} or \begin{gather} \s{\fug \defn p\st \exp\left[ \frac{\mu-\mu\st\gas }{RT} \right]} \tag{7.8.8} \cond{(pure gas)} \end{gather} Note that fugacity has the dimensions of pressure.  $$\newcommand{\sups}{^{\text{#1}}} % superscript text$$  $$\newcommand{\m}{_{\text{m}}} % subscript m for molar quantity$$ {\displaystyle T} either. Equilibrium, 2.1.1 Simple Vacancies and The next step, however, is a bit more problematic.  $$\newcommand{\g}{\gamma} % solute activity coefficient, or gamma in general$$ The chemical potential of pure A is written as if we need to distinguish between the liquid phase or the vapour (gas) phase. We can also turn it around: Vacancies in Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Point B is a state of the real gas at pressure $$p'$$. many properties very similar to the better known gravitational or electrostatic  $$\newcommand{\bpd}{[ \partial #1 / \partial #2 ]_{#3}}$$ ignore it (if we don't, math will do it for us as as soon as we write down (i.e. thermodynamical calculations. The external chemical potential is the potential energy per particle in an external eld, and the internal chemical potential energy is the chemical potential that would be present without the external eld.  $$\newcommand{\aph}{^{\alpha}} % alpha phase superscript$$ If the substance is an ideal gas, So at constant temperature, Equation \ref{eq5} then becomes, $\int_{\mu^o}^{\mu} d\mu = RT int_{p^o}^{p} \dfrac{dp}{p} \label{eq5b}$, $\mu = \mu^o + RT \ln \left(\dfrac{p}{p^o} \right)$, Patrick E. Fleming (Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry; California State University, East Bay). Active 3 years, 8 months ago.  $$\newcommand{\bPd}{\left[ \dfrac {\partial #1} {\partial #2}\right]_{#3}}$$ /Filter /FlateDecode In other words, the "chemical potential μ " is a measure of how much the free enthalpy (or the free energy) of a system changes (by dGi) if you add or remove a number dni particles of the particle species i while keeping the number of the other particles (and the temperature T and the pressure p) constant: d Gi. There is no way we can evaluate the absolute value of $$\mu$$ at a given temperature and pressure, or of $$\mu\st$$ at the same temperature—at least not to any useful degree of precision.  $$\renewcommand{\in}{\sups{int}} % internal$$ The general procedure is to integrate $$\dif\mu=V\m\difp$$ (Eq. a − = If the gas is an ideal gas, its fugacity is equal to its pressure. The total differential of the Gibbs energy of a fixed amount of a pure substance in a single phase, with $$T$$ and $$p$$ as independent variables, is $$\dif G = -S\dif T + V\difp$$ (Eq.  P. Atkins and J. de Paula, Atkins' Physical Chemistry, 8th ed., New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. in this context is described in a series of modules in the ". As long as we look at gases, there is  $$\newcommand{\mue}{\mu\subs{e}} % electron chemical potential$$  $$\newcommand{\dil}{\tx{(dil)}}$$ is therefore given by an ideal part and an excess part.  $$\newcommand{\bd}{_{\text{b}}} % subscript b for boundary or boiling point$$ For the standard chemical potential of a gas, this e-book will usually use the notation $$\mu\st\gas$$ to emphasize the choice of a gas standard state.