This list examines the influence, depth of insight, and wide-reaching interest across many subjects of various "lovers of wisdom," and ranks them accordingly. visions or scripture). The leading figure in making this rejection was René Descartes, the "father of modern philosophy". He pithily stated this argument as "cogito, ergo sum" ("I think, therefore I am").2. All philosophers rapping together is in regular text.]. To find philosophers by core area, field, major philosophical tradition, ethnicity, or time periods, see the subheadings further below. Lucky for history, you didn't write The Art of Rapping! He founded the Academy in Athens that was the western society’s first institution of higher learning. The distinction is that philosophical belief is based on logical argument, whereas religious belief is based on revelation (direct transmission of knowledge to humans from the supernatural, e.g. They call me Übermensch 'cause I'm so driven! At any rate, Socrates' efforts introduced an unprecedented level of rigour and precision to Greek philosophy (though truly relentless critical reflection would not take hold across the West until the Enlightenment).45, According to Socrates, the duty of a philosopher is chiefly to assist others in discovering truth for themselves, rather than communicating truth directly. The Greek word for philosophy (philosophia) translates to the “love for wisdom” in English. He was influenced by Pythagoras, Heraclitus. 10. And I'm a freethinker, so confronting conformists like you? Page Contents show Thales. Home » Philosophy » Historical list of Western Philosophers. Aristotle saw no need for Plato's theory of forms, arguing that physical things simply exist; they are not approximations of abstract ideals. knowledge that a mind naturally contains from birth), as opposed to analysis of sensory experience. His full name is Parmenides. His full name is Empedocles. The Western Philosophers battled the Eastern Philosophers in Eastern Philosophers vs Western Philosophers. His main interest is natural philosophy. And call me Übermensch 'cause I'm so driven! Apparently the first to do so was Thales (the "father of Western philosophy"), who initiated a search for the fundamental substance of all matter (see History of Science). His notable idea is that all things are made by four elements, water, air, fire and earth. The Classical age of Greece (ca. Oh, I'm delighted by their writing; such charming little thoughts. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. His main interests are Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Politics. In the realm of political philosophy, Aristotle argued in favour of democracy, albeit with limited suffrage (compared to modern democracies).2 His Politics (Aristotle's chief work of political thought, and one of the two foremost ancient works of political philosophy, along with Plato's Republic) famously identifies three basic types of government: rule by one (monarchy/tyranny), rule by a few (aristocracy/oligarchy), and rule by many (polity/democracy).8, Though no subsequent ancient philosopher would approach the influence of Socrates, Plato, or Aristotle, many schools of thought emerged throughout the remainder of antiquity (e.g. If one kicks a ball and sends it flying, one perceives via sensory experience that one's foot struck the ball, and that the ball flew through the air; only the presence of the causality category in the brain, however, makes one interpret the kick as having caused the ball's flight. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. A government that fails to abide by the contract can be declared invalid, and be legitimately overthrown by its people. Individual welfare provision, known as a "social safety net", directly ensures the welfare of individual citizens (e.g. This list will introduce you to the top 10, so sit comfortably and get ready for some wisdom! The views of these two thinkers are sometimes difficult to separate, given that the words of Socrates (who wrote nothing himself) are preserved chiefly in the works of Plato. His notable ideas are determinism and ultimate reality. ideas or qualities). Socrates (persistent critical reflection), Christian philosophy: Platonic (Augustine) > Aristotelian (Aquinas), social contract: Hobbes, Locke (liberalism), Rousseau, Mill (utilitarianism, positive liberalism). Since a social contract is an agreement to live in a society, it actually ends up robbing individuals of their natural freedom; hence Rousseau's most famous quote, "man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains". (Aristotle did accept the existence of one non-physical thing, the "prime mover", to explain how the universe came into being in the first place. Some notable philosophers include Hypatia of Alexandria (ca. His notable ideas are. His full name is Anaxagoras. Rembrandt’s Philosopher in Meditation, a classical view of philosophy isolated from the world. ), The third great social contract theorist was Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a supporter of liberalism who envisioned an idyllic state of nature. In the West, logic/reason was first explicitly identified and discussed by the ancient Greeks. Philosophy may be defined as "the study of existence, knowledge, and values". Using this argument, Mill championed such causes as women's suffrage and an end to slavery.2,25 (Utilitarianism provides an alternative to the notion of freedoms as "natural rights", a popular view among liberal thinkers.). Our philosophy flourishes! Well, I hope they can speak their minds better than they can write it! His full name is Thales of Miletus; he belongs to Ionian, Milesian Naturalism. The primary figure in this transition was Niccolo Machiavelli, the "father of modern political thought". His notable idea is that Apeiron is the basic principle. His most revered work, the Republic, is the founding document of Western political thought. The opposite position to rationalism, which argues that knowledge of reality is obtained (solely or principally) via analysis of sensory data, is known as empiricism. Home » Philosophy » Historical list of Western Philosophers. Transcendentalism stresses the fundamental goodness of humanity and the constant presence of the divine in people and in nature; by listening to one's intuition/feelings, one can "tune in" to this divine harmony, allowing one to unlock the profound truths of life (despite the absence of objective evidence). environmental regulation, subsidized infrastructure). Descartes was no exception to this rule; most famously, he developed the Cartesian coordinate system, which united algebra and geometry. Like, how did these boring geeks from the Far East get invited? Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. His main interests are Metaphysics, Ontology. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are as essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. To use logic/reason is to draw conclusions that make sense based on a given body of information. Intonations and its Functions in English Language, Positive Thinking: The key to Success & Happiness, 4 Ethnic & Universal Religions and their Aspects, Structured Data Issue Fixed in KK Star Ratings Plugin. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.

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