[2] Between 2001 and 2006, less than 1% of Cassia crossbills paired with other call types. Groth’s work laid out the idea that each taxon gives a unique, identifiable call type when in flight. It extracts the seeds with its crossed bill. HABITAT: Taxonomy: Likely best matched by L. c. sitkensis, but many specimens identified as this form probably include other types of similar morphology such as Types 1, 3 or 4. It will be particularly interesting to see how it all plays out in the Northeast and southward along the east coast. To the human ear, Type 5 can sound like very twangy clip-clip-clip and therefore unlike other types except Type 3 (which sounds softer and scratchy). It will rarely occur in spruce/Douglas-fir forests of Intermountain West as well. Resident in its breeding range, it may move southwards according to food resources. [2] Due to their restricted range and habitat, there is a cause for concern for this species survival. With crossbills on the move now, we are pleased to introduce Matt Young, who has become one of the North American experts on this incredibly complicated species complex. Lance Benner and Walter Szelinga) and Colorado has six specimens that match L. c. stricklandi (e.g., DMNS 4294, 4296, etc. [17] The species may already lose potentially half its population due to the pending consequences of the 2020 Western United States wildfires, one of which engulfed a large portion of the South Hills, one of the only two strongholds for the bird. Lastly, I’d also like to thank the eBird team for advice and contributions to this piece. Preferred trees: Likely associates with Black Spruce. [eBird map]. The drought could very well have adversely affected the quality of the crop out there. It may be accepted as a species in the near future. [2][3][9] Initially, it was considered one of the Red Crossbills’ 10 call types, which had different vocalizations, bill size and were foraging for different conifer species. It must be said that while much has been learned in recent years about Red Crossbills, there is still much to learn. [eBird map], Movements: Slightly to moderately irruptive in parts of the Intermontane West. It has strong asymmetrical jaw muscles, assisting the twisting movement necessary to extract the seed. [5] Occasionally when red crossbills forage, there will be overlap between different call types. [11] In result, the lodgepole pine are creating cones with thick-scaled cones, whilst the crossbills have evolved deeper bills to counter this. [4] Males will aggressively defend the female from other breeding males after copulation successfully occurs. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 41:77-210. Known range: Primarily the coastal Pacific Northwest of northern California to central Oregon, but uncommon year-round in the Northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. Uses spruces and soft-coned pines as well. Type 5 Red Crossbills have two elements that drop in frequency, but the two elements are given in very slightly different frequency domains. comm. [1][3], The Cassia crossbill shares many physical features with the red crossbill and all of its different call types. They are still fed by parents for a month more. Pieplow, N. 2007. Red Crossbill pairs are monogamous, and form within flocks. [2] The individual notes of the song are typically buzzier and will have multiple instances of silence in between call phrases. DIET: The song is a trill followed by Greenfinch like calls, but more varied. Taxonomy: Likely equates to L. c. stricklandi, Known range: Southwest U.S. to southern Mexico; possibly also Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador (recordings needed); in the U.S. it occurs in s. Arizona and s. New Mexico; museum specimens have been noted from Colorado and California.

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