Remote sensing has proved to be an excellent tool for extraction of data from glaciers, snow and oceans for remote areas. For deriving LST, the algorithm SW need spectral radiance and emissivity of two TIR bands as input. Now NDSI technique is an established technique for snow cover, changes. For snow and vegetation mix areas, a red edge can be observed if vegetation cover is more than 25%. Spectral data of snow and other objects was collected covering different aspects in the Beas basin of the Himalayan region. snow, vegetation and soil by different proportions on its reflectance. reflectance shifted to high wavelengths, as amount contamination A change in reflectance with a shift of peak towards longer wavelength was observed in the visible region, as snow contamination was increased. The spectral reflectance gradually decreases from 95% to 60% within the visible range while snow metamorphoses into glacier ice. NDSI table of different aspects discussed in the report. The major goal of research was to find snow cover trend for glaciated regions of Pakistan followed by estimation of snow mass balance. Glaciers are storehouses for freshwater. b) Spectral reflectance curves for different glacier facies after in-situ measurements (modified from Hall et al., 1989b; based on, ... We also use the dimensions outlined in Bigg et al. Year 2004 has the lowest mass snow balance and 2014 has the highest snow mass balance. Figure 26. Figure 9c. Reflectance and radiance of Soil. Climate scientists are not directly interested in snow spectral reflectance but rather in the reflection of the global incoming solar radiation. These parameters are key inputs for hydrological and atmospheric models. North orientation with varying angles from 0 to 50 degrees. With the advancement in satellite remote sensing, LST can be precisely estimated with the help of satellite imageries. Remote sensing has proved to be an excellent tool for extraction of data from glaciers, snow and oceans for remote areas. The mean value of ablation in summer was 87.7 cm w.e. Inside fjords, icebergs may affect glacier–ocean interactions by cooling incoming ocean waters, enhancing vertical mixing, or providing back stress on the terminus. estimated using algorithms, namely, Mono-Window (MW), Split-Window (SW), Dual-Angle (DA), and Single-Channel (SC). However, relatively few studies have been performed on iceberg dynamics inside fjords, particularly outside of Greenland. Impact of Climate Change on glaciers of Karakoram Himalaya. Spectrally integrated reflectance is described by the albedo, which is the ratio of the reflected to the incoming global shortwave radiation. Remote sensing for snow hydrology in China: challenges and perspectives, Spatial and temporal changes in ablation, distribution and evolution of glacial zones on Irenebreen, a small glacier of the High Arctic, Svalbard, Development and Evaluation of a New “Snow Water Index (SWI)” for Accurate Snow Cover Delineation, Spatiotemporal distributions of icebergs in a temperate fjord: Columbia Fjord, Alaska, The new Swiss glacier inventory 2000 : application of remote sensing and GIS, Spatiotemporal Distributions of Icebergs in a Temperate Fjord: Columbia Fjord, Alaska, INVESTIGATION OF CRYOSPHERE DYNAMICS VARIATIONS IN THE UPPER INDUS BASIN USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS, INVESTIGATION OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF CRYOSPHERE DYNAMICS OVER THE ASIAN WATER TOWER USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING, Climate and Remotely Sensed Markers of Glacier Changes in the Himalaya: Twelve Case Studies, Remote sensing: The quantitative approach, Remote Sensing: The Quantitative Approach. For snow and soil cover mix, as the proportion of soil cover increases, reflectance increases in SWIR region. are considered along with the fundamentals of pattern recognition in It reflects away the sun's heat, cooling the overlying air. influence part of the curve. Glacier changes are among the best natural indicators of climatic change. (1986) revealed a strong correlation between nitrate fallouts and great solar proton events by measuring abundances of nitrates in Antarctic snow. Figure 9b. Glaciers Monitoring is one of the most important research areas especially when climate change has been accelerated snowmelt process. Snow reflectance curve showing the effect of snow depth. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to, Melting of snow/glaciers and ice sheets are affected by the changes in Land Surface Temperature (LST). Further quantitative analysis was performed to relate presence of greater vegetation as an indication of greater snowmelt. The chapter uses recent studies to highlight key aspects that should be kept in perspective while undertaking remotely sensed glacial assessments. VV). Reflectance of green grass, dry grass and green plant. ���� Adobe d �� C the acquisition of useful information from multispectral image data. snow and. Corresponding studies have been performed by Warren and Wiscombe As the SW algorithm use both the TIR bands (10 and 11) and OLI bands 2, 3, 4 and 5, the LST generated using them are expected to be more reliable and accurate. One common hazard is glacial lake outburst phenomenon, which cause severe flash flooding in downstream areas. Snow reflectance curve showing grain size effect. For snow cover and soil cover mix, as proportion of soil Soil contamination significantly reduced the albedo of snow at a low level of contamination but showed little influence at higher level. Radio-echo-sounding and radar altimetry are covered in 32 pages on glaciers and icesheets. Figure 15. All content in this area was uploaded by Xuezhi Feng on Jun 30, 2015. Die Hauptergebnisse dieser Arbeit sind:- Eine relativ einfache Methode (mit einem Schwellwert klassierte TM4 / TM5 Bilder) liefert die besten Resultate für die Gletscherkartierung, allerdings ist die Vor- und Nachverarbeitung der Satellitendaten zeitaufwendig (z.B. Figure 27. However, if Albedo depends not only on snow type, but. The spectral reflection characteristics for snow, ice and turbid water within the spectral range 380-1200 nm have been analysed. Relative strength, shape of curve and reflectance characteristics have shown the potential to identify the influence of contamination and grain-size based metamorphism using satellite-based hyperspectral remote sensing. We elucidated snout variations of 19 (7 last year and 12 this year) outlet glaciers of the Hielo Patagónico Sur (HPS), for 1986-2001 and 2001-2006/07, using Landsat TM (1986 & 2001) and ALOS PRISM (2006/07) and AVNIR-2 (2007). Based on the t-test, Mj and Cv values, the optimum remote sensing bands have been selected, that is, 420-450, 840-910, 950-1110 nm for snow, 670-760 nm for ice and 730-810 nm for turbid water, respectively. Snow mass balance curves reveal that glaciers are regaining their mass balance after losing mass balance in middle of last decade. We analyzed the glacier surface conditions (bare ice/snow) using PALSAR data for Glaciar San Rafael, San Quintin and Pío XI of Hielos Patagónicos (Patagonia Icefields), South America. In the second step, comparisons of the spectral separation of features in the individual band were made from the field spectral observations collected using a spectroradiometer. These results were combined with respective year’s average monthly temperature.

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