A local rivalry between Hindu Sindhis (who came after Partition) and economically well-off Bohra Muslims was the underlying cause of the violence. **(The Indian Express 16/10/1989); **(Frontline 28/10–10/11/1989); ***(Engineer 1989b), Chief Minister of Bihar: Satyendra Narain Sinha, Congress Party, March 1989–December 1989. It was of course not possible for the new government to tolerate independent princely states in the very heart of the country. The meeting began shortly after Maghrib prayers today. In the first riot, which started on December 15, seventy-four people lost their lives (62 Muslims and 12 Hindus). Official reports registered nine deaths. People knew better. Troubles occurred in Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh). The communal divide, as it is called, is still salient, and religious riots have become a distinctive feature of Indian social life. The police proved ineffectual. It should be noted that several CMs (chief ministers) had taken strong measures, with preventive arrests, as was the case in West Bengal, where the Left Front, with its CPM (Communist Party of India [Marxist]) chief minister, Jyoti Basu, had a good opportunity to demonstrate its secular commitments (Zins 2001). The procession was scheduled to reach Ayodhya (Uttar Pradesh) after some 10,000 kilometers of ecstatic crowds but, also, predictably, leaving a bloody trail in its wake (Engineer 1991c). Other reports put the death toll at 15, among whom 12 were killed in shooting by police. And in every mohalla, people agreed gracefully. Transport buses and Hindu temples were damaged. Brick-batting took place. GRAY, Hugh, « Andhra Pradesh », in WEINER, Myron (ed. In order to survive, they would accept any job, any transaction with their old connections of the Gulf and its new opportunities-they are even at times compelled to sell their daughters for short marriages with wealthy Arab businessmen. Muslims remained permanently terrified of the police forces after this incident. A Disputed Legacy 1946-1990, Hertingfordbury: Roxford Books, MADAN, T.N. The Hilal Committees in Tamil Nadu hence announced start of Ramadan from Thursday May 17, 2018", a statement released earlier said. Before the riots, the superintendent of police had been transferred, leaving the city without any competent officer in charge. Incidents of violence went on until the end of April 2002. 51-67, SAXENA, N.C., 1983, «Public Employment and Educational Backwardness among Muslims in India», Political Science Review, April-September 1983, pp 130-133, SCHERMERHON, R. A., 1976, Communal Violence in India: A Case Study, Kalamazoo (Michigan): Consultative Committee of Indian Muslims, Syed Z. Abedin, SCHERMERHON, R. A., 1971, «The Locale of Hindu-Muslim Riots», The Indian Journal of Politics, January-June 1971, 1 (1): 37-47, SHABAN, Abdul (ed. ), Religion in South Asia: Religious Conversions and Revival Movements in South Asia in Medieval and Modern Times, 1991, Delhi: South Asia Books, KHAN, Rafiq, MITTAL, Satyaprakash, 1984, «The Hindu-Muslim Riot in Varanasi and the Role of the Police», in ENGINEER, Ashgar Ali (ed. But for other sources, even a figure of 200 dead would be an underestimation. In Kerala, the Indian Union Muslim League (IUML), still hated in the North, is an extremely positive factor. On October 26, eighteen persons were brutally murdered by a mob in the area of Jamuna Kothi. Regarding the deteriorating relationship between Hindus and Muslims reaching the South, the first alert occurred in 1981, with the agitation following the Meenakshipuram conversions of several hundred Dalits to Islam. In all, the two phases of rioting in Bombay-in December 1992 and January 1993-claimed 900 lives (575 Muslims, 275 Hindus, 45 unknown and 5 others): according to the Srikrishna Commission report. Answer: Mahbub-ul-Huq 5. Who did the first scientific attempt to calculate the national income of India in 1931-32? Land grabbing quarrels are frequent, and susceptibilities are running high. It was an additional challenge. Never mind, said the Muslim spokesmen. At the Centre, the Congress Party had to pay dearly for its past errors. The Indian Mujahideen? A curfew was imposed but relaxed again on May 22 so that Muslims could offer prayers on the last day of Ramzan. A small and marginal organization, the BMSS (Bharatiya Minority Suraksha Sangh) subsequently called for a Surat bandh on December 7. Looting and burning by criminal elements took place. The state government had issued directives to district and police authorities advising great caution. The violence claimed 12 lives officially and more than 40 according to media reports. We shall appeal to the Supreme Court. Religious composition of the population (as per the 2001 census): Chief Minister of Maharashtra: Sudhakarrao Naik, Congress Party, June 1991–March 1993. For the minorities, this was a strong signal. Still, it would pay dearly for the whole drama in the 1996 general elections. These events indicate the level of communalization that occurred in the South of India during this period. [L. K. Advani->http://www.massviolence.org/Lal-Krishna-Advani,695?decoupe_recherche=advani], the BJP leader who was visiting the city at the time, had a narrow escape.
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