Another way to think about probability is that it is the official name for “chance.”. Percentages | Systems of Measurement, Subscribe to our Newsletter | Contact Us | About Us. For example, the probability of blood type O among black people in the United States is 0.49, and the probability that a randomly chosen Japanese person has blood type O is only 0.3). Probability is a mathematical description of randomness and uncertainty. We can collect this information as data and we can analyze this data using statistics. Thanks for watching this video tutorial, and until next time, happy studying. Also, for the sake of simplicity, ignore leap years, and assume that there are 365 days in each year. Other materials used in this project are referenced when they appear. So, we’ve seen how the relative frequency idea works, and hopefully the activities have convinced you that the relative frequency of an event does indeed approach the theoretical probability of that event as the number of repetitions increases. Probability measures and quantifies "how likely" an event, related to these types of experiment, will happen. Tossing a Coin. This is very counterintuitive. Then P(A) is estimated by the ratio of the number of times A occurs to the number of repetitions, which is called the relative frequency of event A. MIT OpenCourseWare makes the materials used in the teaching of almost all of MIT's subjects available on the Web, free of charge. that may be associated with that experiment. It’s also worth remembering that the total probability cannot be more than 1. Tagged as: CO-6, Empirical Probability, Event, Law of Large Numbers, LO 6.4, LO 6.5, Probability, Properties of Probability, Relative Frequency (Probability), Theoretical (Classical) Probability. 6.041SC Probabilistic Systems Analysis and Applied Probability, 6.041SC Probabilistic Systems Analysis and Applied Probability (Fall 2013), 6.041 Probabilistic Systems Analysis and Applied Probability (Fall 2010), 6.041 Probabilistic Systems Analysis and Applied Probability (Spring 2006). It is a way to measure or quantify uncertainty. Here we go, blue. Many events can't be predicted with total certainty. Although we will not focus on this type of probability in this course, we will mention a few examples to get you thinking about probability and how it works. For example: I have a little paper cup here and it has different colored houses—blue ones, red ones. The probability of each outcome is ½. Thus, P(red) = P(yellow) = 1/4. Probability is basically the chance of something happening. For a “fair” coin (one that is not unevenly weighted, and does not have identical images on both sides) the chances that a “flip” will result in either side facing up are equally likely. Probability is used to answer the following types of questions: Each of these examples has some uncertainty. As long as you correctly work out all the favourable outcomes, and all the possible outcomes, all you have to do is plug the numbers into the AND/OR formula and you will get the right answer. If we let A represent what we wish to find the probability of, then P(A) would represent that probability. ), Learn more at Get Started with MIT OpenCourseWare. When a coin is tossed, there are two possible outcomes: heads (H) or ; tails (T) We say that the probability of the coin landing H is ½ In order to measure probabilities, mathematicians have devised the following formula for finding the probability of an event. The tools of probability theory, and of the related field of statistical inference, are the keys for being able to analyze and make sense of data. Another way to think about probability is that it is the official name for “chance.” Probability is the Likelihood of Something Happening. Since all probabilities are decimals, each can be changed to an equivalent percentage. From these two examples, (maybe) you have seen that your original hunches cannot always be counted upon to give you correct predictions of probabilities. We think you will agree that the word probability is a bit long to include in equations, graphs and charts, so it is customary to use some simplified notation instead of the entire word. Note that the relative frequency approach provides only an estimate of the probability of an event. The closer the probability is to 0, the less likely the event is to occur. The answer is 1/221 + 16/221 + 16/221 = 33/221.

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